Uterine cancer : (endometrial cancer) :
It is the cancer of the uterus.
Most often happens in over 55 years and in
women following menopause.
The uterus is a muscular organ where a
fetus grows. Uterine cancer can start in different parts of the uterus.
Most uterine cancer starts in the
endometrium. Risk factors :
History of polycystic ovaries
Patient on estrogen alone
Radiation therapy to the pelvis
On tamoxifen for breast cancer
Family history of colon/ovarian/ endometrial cancer Signs/symptoms :
90% of Unusual vaginal bleeding
10% of women present with purulent vaginal discharge, sometimes blood tinged.
Pelvic discomfort, uterine enlargement.
On examination- abdominal mass
Uterus may be small/enlarged irregular, fixed.
There is no standard or routine screening test for endometrial cancer.
Tests that may detect are -
Endometrial sampling Management :
Surgery remains the cornerstone in the
management of uterine cancer.
Further treatment depends on the histo
pathological report, staging, grading, of the hysterectomy specimen. Cervical Cancer :
The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
Cervical cancer is the cancer that starts in the cervix due to abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
It is the second most common cancer, next to breast cancer.
Although women between the ages of 55 to 59 are most vulnerable to this condition, it can occur at any age, can occurs between 15 and 44 years of age. Risk factors :
Sexually transmitted infections
Birth control pills
Early pregnancy/early sexual intercourse
Good news ! cervical cancer is believed to be
preventable, and in fact is one of the most preventable of all cancers.
Being aware of risk factors, visit your Gynecologist regularly and ask all relevant questions to know how to take good care of your overall health.
Maintain ideal weight-physical activity and healthy diet.
Increase antioxidents-fruits, vegetables, whole grains.
Regular screening with pap smear.
Protection-avoid unprotected sex and practice safe sex to avoid the risk of other infections.
HPV vaccination-reduce the risk of cancerous changes of the cervix.
Eligible for vaccine-9 to 10 years onwards. Signs and symptoms :
Early-no symptoms are seen.
Later-abnormal vaginal bleeding.
- Pelvic pain
- Lower back pain
- Unusual vaginal discharge
- Pain during sex
- Vaginal bleeding after sex
- Longer or heavier menstrual periods than usual.
- Post menopausal bleeding
- Frequent urination Screening of Cervical cancer :
Done with PAP smear
Should begin after the age of 21 years Symptoms :
Consult gynecologist if above risk
factors and symptoms are present.
Done with PAP smear
Should begin after the age of 21 years and sexually active women. In early stages -
Local excisional procedures are available.
In later stages-
Hysterectomy In advance stages -
Radiotherapy and chemotherapy Breast cancer :
It is the cancer that develops from breast tissue. Incidence is more after the age of 40 years and highest over age of 70 years. Risk factors :
Early menarche, multiparity, late menopause.
Post menopausal hormone therapy
Previous breast cancer
Obesity Factors that decreases the risk :
First pregnancy < 20-25 years
Regular exercises Symptoms :
In most cases, patients with early breast cancer have no symptoms and their disease is discovered through mammography screening :
Swelling/mass in the breast
Swelling in the axilla
Ulcer of skin of breast
Skin discoloration/skin dimpling
Eczema thickening/paered orange
Nipple discharge/blood stained secretion Diagnosis : Triple Diagnostics
1) Clinical examination
2) Imaging (ultrasound, mammography)
3) Needle biopsy
Self breast examination is a must for all the women and consult doctors in case of any problems. Treatment :
Depends on the stage of the cancer either surgery (chemotherapy, Radiotherapy).